The E-Liquid or E-juice as commonly known is the liquid used in your vaping devices. It is generally made up of four different components being Vegetable glycerine (VG), Propylene glycol (PG), Flavourings and of course Nicotine, which is not sold in E-liquids in Australia and has to be bought separately from an international source as it is illegal in Australia to sell E-liquids which already contain Nicotine.
Vegetable glycerine (VG)
Vegetable glycerine (VG) s a clear, colourless, thick liquid with a natural, moderately sweet taste. 100% food grade vegetable glycerine is comprised of 99.7% fatty esters, made from either coconut or palm oil. The remaining 0.3% of vegetable glycerine is water.This part of the E-liquid make up is also used in things such as Foods, toothpaste and pharmaceuticals and is generally seen as being safe, although the the use of it being inhaled has limited information. So why is VG in E-liquids? VG is added to e-juices to create a dense and thick vapour on the exhale as it is quite a viscous liquid. So the greater the percentage of VG in your E-liquid the thicker the vapour and smoother the vape will be.
Propylene glycol (PG)
Propylene glycol (PG) this liquid has no odour or colour and is clear in appearance. It is thinner in viscous than (VG) and is commonly used in everyday products such as Nicotine inhalers, toothpaste and other oral hygiene products. (PG) is added to most E-liquids to replicate the throat hit you get from smoking, along with this it is also the carrier of flavourings in E-liquids. PG is generally regarded as being safe, but again there is limited information with long term inhalation. Some people can find Propylene glycol (PG) irritating in the mouth or lung and may have an allergy against (PG). In this case it is preferable to vape 100% (VG) E-liquid or choose an E-juice with a lower ratio of (PG)
For further information about (PG) and (VG) Click Here
Nicotine is one of the common chemicals found in tobacco and is an addictive substance, hence why people who vape and are trying to make the switch use nicotine in their juices to curb the urge to smoke and also the withdrawals that come with quitting combustible cigarettes. Also as (PG) it contributes to the throat hit. Nicotine is an extract from the tobacco leaf and is also used in such things as nicotine patches, gums and nicotine sprays. In Australia Nicotine in E-liquids is classified as a ‘dangerous poison” and thus illegal to sell in E-liquids bought in Australia. Whenever handling liquid Nicotine please be sure to take safety precautions such as wearing gloves and safety gear, due to the liquid being able to be absorbed through the skin. If your skin should happen to come in contact with the nicotine liquid, make sure to wash your hands. Most people who start vaping can use a nicotine level ranging from 6-12ml, however most vapers will drop their level of nicotine as they continue to vape.
Most vapers who turn to vaping will generally begin with a tobacco flavoured E-liquid which resembles the experience when they smoked. Over time they will change to many of the wide variety of flavours such as Fruit, Sweet, Mint, Menthol, different foods and even drink flavours. These flavourings mainly are derived from food flavourings which are safe to ingest but less is known of the effects of inhaling them. There is potential harm from long term vaping of some flavours, however the risk from flavouring chemicals is likely to be much less than from smoking.
Chemicals to avoid which are known to have potential risks are
E-liquid mix ratio
E-Liquids are made up of a ratio of PG and VG. Most E-liquid bottles will display a PG:VG ratio which will indicate the level of how much the E-juice contains of each. These ratios can range from a 50/50 blend of PG/VG, 60/40, or 20/80. These ratios all come down to your vaping preference and how you like to vape.
If you are the type of vaper that enjoys a throat hit than you are going to want an E-liquid with a higher PG ratio, which along with the nicotine will give you that effect.
If you are a vaper that enjoys a smoother vape than you will tend to buy an E-liquid that has a higher VG ratio, as VG is thicker in viscosity a draw back is that the flavour may be slightly muted as there is less of the flavour carrier PG in the ratio.